Laser treatment of vascular anomalies of oral cavity
Next Document Rev Port Estomatol Med Dent Cir Maxilofac. 2013;54:171-5.
Vascular anomalies are disorders of the endothelium and related tissue resulting in an aberrant and hamartomatous vessel growth. They are divided into vascular tumors (including haemangioma) and vascular malformations. Additionally some vascular anomalies can be acquired such as venous lakes or varix. Different modalities to treat them are available including laser therapy, steroid therapy, embolization, β-blockers therapy, sclerosant therapy, surgery or cryosurgery. This article reports the usefulness of CO2 laser and diode laser for the treatment of vascular anomalies of the oral cavity and concluded that laser is a suitable tool for the treatment of these lesions and delivers very efficient results without significant complications such as hemorrhage, pain, infection, and significant scarring.
Vascular anomalies are disorders of the endothelium and related tissue resulting in an aberrant and hamartomatous vessel growth.1 A number of terms have been used to describe them such as angiomas, haemangioma, vascular birthmarks but they are now divided into vascular tumors (including haemangioma) and vascular malformations.2 Additionally some vascular anomalies can be acquired such as venous lakes or varix.3
Haemangioma are the most common tumors of the infancy, occurring in 4–12% of all children.1, 4 They are rarely seen at birth, but they appear after a few weeks of life, showing a proliferative phase quicker than the physical growth. Before the first years of life they slow in growth and begin the involution phase. Multifocal haemangioma can be component of PHACES syndrome (Posterior fossa brain anomalies; Haemangioma usually in cervical segment haemangioma; Arterial anomalies; Cardiac defects and coarctation of the aorta; Eye anomalies; Sterna cleft).5
Vascular malformations are classified according to the type of involved vessels such as capillary, venous, lymphatic and arteriovenous malformations. Progressive ectasia of existing vascular structures caused by sepsis, intercurrent trauma, pregnancy or puberty results in the expansion of vascular malformations. The main characteristic feature of vascular malformations is that they never show signs of involution. Vascular malformations can be categorized also according to their hemodynamic features in low flow lesions including capillary, venous and lymphatic malformations and high-flow lesions including arterial, arteriovenous malformations and arteriovenous fistulas.1 Some vascular malformations may be associated with syndromes such as Sturge–Weber syndrome, blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome, Osler–Weber–Rendu syndrome or Klippel–Trenaunay syndrome.1
Varix and venous lakes are common vascular lesions caused by focal dilatation of venules, occurring more often in elderly patients. The most common oral site is the lip. Once formed...
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a Serviço de Medicina e Cirurgia Oral, Instituto Superior de Ciências da Saúde Norte, Paredes, Portugal
b Serviço de Estomatologia e Medicina Dentária, Centro Hospitalar de São João – Pólo Valongo, Porto, Portugal
c Instituto Superior de Ciências da Saúde, Paredes, Portugal
d Departamento de Fisiologia, Instituto Superior de Ciências da Saúde, Paredes, Portugal